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An “interview” with ChatGPT: What’s public relations? How has PR modified? Will AI change comms professionals?


We interviewed ChatGPT about public relations and, whereas it does properly with high-level questions, it turns into repetitive when these questions have been extra nuanced; the system says it’s “unlikely” that it “or every other AI system will totally change public relations (PR) professionals”

Over the vacations, I learn an “interview” that Marty Weintraub of AimClear performed with ChatGPT. It struck me as good, and I made a decision to copy his experiment with public relations.

Some notes to remember as you learn:

  • First, ChatGPT has a function known as “regenerate response” – which primarily asks the machine to reply the identical query a special means. I used this function liberally, however in each occasion, the second reply was almost similar to the primary one.
  • Second, any hyperlinks within the textual content have been added by me and never ChatGPT. I’ve added them the place I feel they is likely to be helpful for readers.
  • Third, all ChatCPT solutions are in quotes and are verbatim. I supply a little bit of coloration commentary after some solutions and distinguish my commentary utilizing italics.

a robot painting a picture of a human by Vincent van Gogh

Picture credit score: DALLE-2, “a robotic portray an image of a human by Vincent van Gogh

What’s public relations?

  • “Public relations is the observe of constructing and sustaining relationships between a company and its stakeholders. This may embody the media, prospects, workers, and most of the people. Public relations professionals create and preserve a constructive picture for his or her group, typically by means of using advertising and marketing, branding, and communication methods. They might additionally work to handle and reply to unfavourable conditions or points that will come up.”

It’s not a nasty take.

How is public relations outlined?

  • “Public relations is outlined because the observe of deliberately managing the unfold of data between a person or group and the general public. The purpose of PR is to affect how the general public perceives a company or particular person, and to handle their repute. PR practitioners work to create and preserve relationships with media shops, and use these relationships to get their consumer’s message out to the general public. PR can even contain managing occasions, talking at conferences, and creating social media campaigns.
  • PR is a broad area that encompasses many alternative techniques and techniques for managing communication between a company and the general public. PR practitioners use quite a lot of strategies to get their message out, together with press releases, media relations, social media, and extra. The purpose of PR is to current a company or particular person in the very best gentle, and to construct and preserve a constructive repute.”

What are some examples of public relations?

  • Media relations: This entails constructing relationships with journalists and getting media protection for a company or particular person. This might embody sending press releases, organizing press conferences, or arranging interviews.
  • Social media: PR practitioners could handle a company’s social media accounts and use them to speak with the general public and promote the group.
  • Occasion planning: PR practitioners could plan occasions resembling product launches, conferences, or charity occasions to get media consideration and generate constructive publicity.
  • Disaster administration: When a company faces a disaster, PR practitioners may match to attenuate the injury to the group’s repute by managing the circulate of data and speaking with the general public.
  • Inside communications: PR practitioners may additionally be chargeable for speaking with workers and stakeholders inside a company.
  • Influencer relations: PR practitioners may match to construct relationships with influencers and get them to advertise a company or its merchandise.
  • Public affairs: This entails working with authorities officers and companies to form public coverage and advocate on behalf of a company.”

That is reflective of a conventional view of public relations. There are different capabilities that may very well be added to the record, but it surely appears to me, ChatGPT hits lots of the typical duties.

How is public relations totally different from advertising and marketing?

  • “Public relations (PR) and advertising and marketing are associated, however they aren’t the identical factor. Each PR and advertising and marketing are involved with selling a company or particular person, however they go about it in numerous methods.
  • Advertising is targeted on selling a services or products as a way to promote it. Advertising efforts typically contain paid promoting, and the purpose is to achieve as many individuals as doable as a way to improve gross sales. Advertising can even contain market analysis, product growth, and branding.
  • PR, then again, is targeted on constructing and sustaining a constructive repute. PR practitioners work to get their consumer’s message out to the general public, however they achieve this in a extra refined means. PR practitioners use quite a lot of techniques, together with press releases, media relations, and social media, to get their message out. The purpose of PR will not be essentially to promote a services or products, however slightly to form the general public’s notion of a company or particular person.
  • In brief, advertising and marketing is targeted on selling a services or products, whereas PR is targeted on constructing and sustaining a constructive repute.”

There’s no point out of belief or credibility, which I feel are key factors of differentiation. Nevertheless, I do subscribe to total sentiment right here: that PR is a definite strategy to communication.

What’s the worth of public relations?

  • “Public relations (PR) can present worth to a company in plenty of methods:
  • Constructing and sustaining a constructive repute: PR can assist a company construct and preserve a constructive repute by getting the group’s message out to the general public and shaping the general public’s notion of the group.
  • Growing model consciousness: PR can assist improve model consciousness by getting the group’s identify and message out to the general public by means of varied channels, such because the media, social media, and occasions.
  • Influencing public opinion: PR can assist form public opinion about a company or difficulty by presenting info in a means that’s favorable to the group.
  • Managing crises: PR could be an essential instrument for managing crises and mitigating injury to a company’s repute. PR practitioners can use varied techniques, resembling issuing statements and holding press conferences, to offer correct info and reply to unfavourable occasions.
  • Enhancing relationships with stakeholders: PR can assist enhance relationships with stakeholders, resembling workers, prospects, and traders, by offering clear and correct info and addressing their considerations.
  • General, PR can assist a company construct and preserve a constructive repute, improve model consciousness, and enhance relationships with stakeholders.”

How a lot does public relations price?

  • “The price of public relations (PR) can differ broadly relying on the scope and targets of the marketing campaign, the scale of the group, and the techniques which might be used. Some PR corporations cost an hourly charge for his or her providers, whereas others cost a flat price or a proportion of the general finances.
  • Generally, PR campaigns can price anyplace from a couple of thousand {dollars} to a number of hundred thousand {dollars}. Smaller organizations or startups might be able to work with a PR agency on a retainer foundation, the place they pay a set price every month for a sure variety of hours of PR work. Bigger organizations may match with a PR agency on a undertaking foundation, the place they pay a flat price for a selected marketing campaign.
  • It’s value noting that PR could be an ongoing course of, slightly than a one-time expenditure. Many organizations work with PR corporations on an ongoing foundation as a way to preserve a constructive repute and preserve their message within the public eye.”

In different phrases, “it relies upon.”

How is public relations measured?

  • “Public relations (PR) practitioners use quite a lot of strategies to measure the effectiveness of their campaigns. Some frequent methods to measure PR embody:
  • Media protection: PR practitioners typically observe the variety of media placements that their campaigns generate, in addition to the attain and influence of these placements. This may embody the variety of occasions an article is shared on social media, or the quantity of people that see a tv phase.
  • Web site visitors: PR practitioners could observe the variety of guests to the group’s web site, in addition to the pages which might be hottest. This can assist them perceive how efficient their PR efforts have been at driving visitors to the web site.
  • Social media metrics: PR practitioners could observe social media metrics such because the variety of followers, likes, and shares on social media platforms. This can assist them perceive how properly their message is resonating with the general public.
  • Model sentiment: PR practitioners could use instruments to trace the general sentiment across the group or model. This may contain monitoring mentions of the group on social media and different on-line platforms, and analyzing the sentiment of these mentions (constructive, unfavourable, or impartial).
  • Gross sales information: In some circumstances, PR practitioners could observe gross sales information to see if there’s a correlation between PR efforts and elevated gross sales.
  • General, there are lots of methods to measure the effectiveness of PR campaigns, and the very best strategy will depend upon the targets of the marketing campaign and the group.”

That is largely a mirrored image of what PR professionals say they measure, based on The JOTW Strategic Communications Survey for 2022. You could find the survey solutions from 483 communicators right here: PR measurement. The ten Most Frequent Methods Comms Professionals are Measuring PR.

What are the highest challenges in public relations?

  • “Public relations (PR) practitioners face plenty of challenges of their work, together with:
  • Managing a disaster: Within the occasion of a disaster, PR practitioners should work shortly to attenuate the injury to a company’s repute and to revive belief with the general public. This may be difficult, as crises typically unfold shortly and could be troublesome to regulate.
  • Constructing and sustaining relationships with the media: PR practitioners depend on relationships with journalists and media shops as a way to get their consumer’s message out to the general public. Constructing and sustaining these relationships could be a problem, as journalists are sometimes busy and should not all the time have an interest within the tales that PR practitioners are selling.
  • Managing social media: Social media has turn out to be an essential platform for PR, but it surely can be a problem to handle. PR practitioners should be aware of their on-line presence and thoroughly monitor what’s being stated about their group on social media.
  • Staying present: PR is a quickly evolving area, and PR practitioners should keep up-to-date on the newest developments and methods as a way to be efficient. This could be a problem, as PR practitioners should juggle many alternative duties and should not have time to remain abreast of the newest developments.
  • Managing budgets: PR practitioners should typically work inside tight budgets, which could be a problem relating to planning and executing efficient campaigns.
  • General, PR practitioners face plenty of challenges of their work, together with managing crises, constructing relationships with the media, and staying present on the newest developments and methods.”

At this level within the “interview” I imagine we’re beginning to see the bounds of the system. The solutions are beginning to really feel repetitive and formulaic. ChatGPT appears to overlook rising themes if there isn’t a large physique of writing already on a subject.

For instance, not one of the very prime challenges going through communicators surfaced by the latest JOTW comms survey are talked about: 1) slicing by means of the noise (35%); 2) too many priorities (31%); and three) lack of worker expertise (25%).

Certainly, “staying present” could also be one of many weak spots in an AI system because of the incapability to tell apart new and rising themes from mis, mal or disinformation.  

Has public relations turn out to be tougher or simpler over the previous couple of years?

  • “Public relations (PR) has modified considerably over the previous couple of years, with the rise of social media and the proliferation of on-line information sources. Some folks imagine that these modifications have made PR simpler, as they’ve supplied new channels for PR practitioners to get their message out to the general public. Others imagine that these modifications have made PR tougher, as they’ve added new complexities to the sphere.
  • One of many most important ways in which social media has modified PR is by giving organizations the power to speak immediately with their audiences. This has made it simpler for PR practitioners to achieve their target market and get their message out to the general public. Nevertheless, social media has additionally made it simpler for unfavourable info to unfold shortly, which could be a problem for PR practitioners to handle.
  • The proliferation of on-line information sources has additionally made it simpler for PR practitioners to achieve a wider viewers. Nevertheless, it has additionally made it tougher to face out in a crowded media panorama.
  • General, it’s troublesome to say whether or not PR has turn out to be tougher or simpler over the previous couple of years. Whereas social media and the proliferation of on-line information sources have supplied new alternatives for PR practitioners, they’ve additionally added new challenges to the sphere.”

This can be a fairly strong reply. ChatGPT does a good job of describing each side of the argument and including a selected instance.

Ought to manufacturers take a public stand on political points?

  • “Whether or not or not a model ought to take a public stand on political points is a posh and controversial query. On one hand, taking a public stand on political points can assist a model differentiate itself and present that it’s socially accountable. It can be a means for a model to display its values and align itself with sure causes or points.
  • However, taking a public stand on political points can be dangerous for a model. It could alienate some prospects and stakeholders who disagree with the model’s place, and it could additionally result in unfavourable backlash and boycotts. Manufacturers that take a public stand on political points should be ready to deal with the potential penalties of their actions.
  • Finally, whether or not or not a model ought to take a public stand on political points is determined by quite a lot of components, together with the model’s values, its target market, and the potential dangers and rewards of doing so. Manufacturers ought to rigorously take into account all of those components earlier than taking a public stand on a political difficulty.”

That is one other “it relies upon” reply. I’ve executed two surveys of my very own on this query of the common public and of skilled communicators. In each circumstances, extra, however not most assume manufacturers ought to typically abstain from politics until the difficulty is clearly tied to the enterprise.

Ought to manufacturers take a public stand on social points?

  • “Whether or not or not a model ought to take a public stand on social points is a posh and controversial query. On one hand, taking a public stand on social points can assist a model differentiate itself and present that it’s socially accountable. It can be a means for a model to display its values and align itself with sure causes or points.
  • However, taking a public stand on social points can be dangerous for a model. It could alienate some prospects and stakeholders who disagree with the model’s place, and it could additionally result in unfavourable backlash and boycotts. Manufacturers that take a public stand on social points should be ready to deal with the potential penalties of their actions.
  • Finally, whether or not or not a model ought to take a public stand on social points is determined by quite a lot of components, together with the model’s values, its target market, and the potential dangers and rewards of doing so. Manufacturers ought to rigorously take into account all of those components earlier than taking a public stand on a social difficulty.”

That is just about the identical reply on the one given above – solely the phrase “social” has been substituted for “political.” It demonstrates, once more, ChatGPT many not be as helpful when the questions are nuanced. Particularly on a sophisticated query like this, as a result of not each social difficulty is inherently political, however any difficulty could be politicized.

Do public relations folks inform the reality?

  • “Public relations (PR) practitioners are anticipated to be trustworthy and clear of their communications with the general public. PR practitioners are chargeable for representing their shoppers precisely and truthfully, and for presenting info in a means that’s honest and balanced.
  • That being stated, PR practitioners are additionally chargeable for selling their shoppers and presenting them in the very best gentle. This may contain highlighting the constructive facets of their shoppers and downplaying the unfavourable facets. PR practitioners are usually not anticipated to current a very unbiased view of their shoppers, however they’re anticipated to be trustworthy and clear of their communications.
  • General, PR practitioners are anticipated to be truthful of their communications, however they’re additionally anticipated to advertise their shoppers in a constructive means.”

Two years in the past, the JOTW comms survey put this query to communicators. The survey discovered 95% communicators imagine they current correct and truthful info say “typically” or “generally.” However simply 2% stated “all the time.”

What expertise do you want to achieve success in public relations?

  • “Listed below are a couple of expertise that may assist you achieve success in public relations:
  • Robust writing expertise: PR practitioners should be capable to write clearly and successfully as a way to craft press releases, pitch tales to journalists, and develop social media content material.
  • Communication expertise: PR practitioners should be capable to talk successfully with quite a lot of audiences, together with the media, shoppers, and the general public. This requires sturdy verbal and interpersonal expertise.
  • Organizational expertise: PR practitioners should be capable to handle a number of duties and initiatives directly, and should be extremely organized as a way to keep on prime of their workload.
  • Strategic considering: PR practitioners should be capable to assume strategically and develop efficient plans and campaigns to realize their shoppers’ targets.
  • Adaptability: PR is a quickly evolving area, and PR practitioners should be capable to adapt to new developments and applied sciences as a way to achieve success.
  • Creativity: PR practitioners should be capable to assume creatively and provide you with new and revolutionary concepts for campaigns and initiatives.
  • Media relations expertise: PR practitioners should be capable to construct and preserve relationships with journalists and media shops as a way to get their shoppers’ messages out to the general public.
  • General, being profitable in PR requires quite a lot of expertise, together with sturdy writing and communication expertise, organizational expertise, strategic considering, adaptability, creativity, and media relations expertise.”

Some may even see irony in an AI system that writes moderately properly suggesting writing is a prime talent. If something, AI instrument that writes will make artistic writing extra essential, as a result of when everybody has the identical instruments to put in writing content material, it’ll all sound the identical. And in B2B advertising and marketing it already does.

How is expertise being utilized in public relations?

  • “Know-how is being utilized in quite a lot of methods in public relations (PR). Listed below are a couple of examples:
  • Social media: PR practitioners use social media platforms like Twitter, Fb, and Instagram to get their message out to the general public. This may contain creating and sharing content material, interacting with followers, and utilizing hashtags to achieve a wider viewers.
  • Press launch distribution: Many PR corporations use on-line press launch distribution providers to get their shoppers’ information out to the media. These providers permit PR practitioners to simply ship press releases to journalists and media shops world wide.
  • Media monitoring: PR practitioners use quite a lot of instruments to observe the media for mentions of their shoppers. These instruments can observe mentions of a consumer on social media, on-line information sources, and conventional media shops.
  • Analytics: PR practitioners use quite a lot of analytics instruments to trace the effectiveness of their campaigns. These instruments can assist PR practitioners perceive how properly their message is resonating with the general public and the way their campaigns are performing.
  • General, expertise is being utilized in quite a lot of methods to help PR efforts, together with social media, press launch distribution, media monitoring, and analytics.”

The reply isn’t fallacious, however I’m upset that social media is listed as a “expertise” for PR. That’s like saying the phone is PR expertise.  And it appears ChatGPT missed a chance to debate the function of AI in public relations expertise.  Once more, that is new and rising info.

Who’re some folks which might be thought leaders in public relations?

  • “There are numerous people who find themselves thought leaders in public relations (PR). Listed below are a couple of examples:
  • Edward Bernays: Edward Bernays is also known as the ‘father of public relations.’ He’s credited with creating lots of the ideas and methods which might be nonetheless utilized in PR at the moment, and his ebook ‘Propaganda’ is taken into account a traditional within the area.
  • Rachel Miller: Rachel Miller is a well known PR practitioner and blogger who writes about PR and social media. She is the co-founder of Mooloop, a social media company, and is a frequent speaker on PR and social media matters.
  • Gini Dietrich: Gini Dietrich is the founder and CEO of Arment Dietrich, a PR and content material advertising and marketing agency. She is a thought chief within the area of PR and is the creator of a number of books on PR and content material advertising and marketing.
  • Deirdre BreakenridgeDeirdre Breakenridge is a PR practitioner and creator who has written a number of books on PR and digital advertising and marketing. She is a frequent speaker on PR and digital advertising and marketing matters and is the co-founder of the PR company Pure Efficiency Communications.
  • Brian Solis: Brian Solis is a digital analyst, speaker, and creator who writes concerning the influence of expertise on enterprise and society. He’s a thought chief within the area of PR and is the creator of a number of books on PR and digital advertising and marketing.
  • General, there are lots of people who find themselves thought leaders in PR, and the sphere is continually evolving as new practitioners and applied sciences emerge.”

I wouldn’t have occurred to me to say Edward Bernays as a “thought chief” however what’s thought management with out historical past? Rachel I have no idea and did some digging, however couldn’t discover one related to a consultancy known as “Mooloop.” There’s a Rachel Miller related to “Moolah” however I’m not sure that is the particular person to which ChatGPT is referring. Gini and Deirdre are very long time advocates in PR. Brian too, however he’s jokingly referred to himself as a recovering PR particular person for 15 or extra years now. Possibly extra. 

Is the PESO mannequin relevant in public relations?

  • “The PESO mannequin is a framework for integrating paid, earned, shared, and owned media in a communications technique. It was developed by Gini Dietrich, the CEO of Arment Dietrich, a PR and content material advertising and marketing agency.
  • The PESO mannequin is usually utilized in public relations (PR) as a solution to create a extra holistic and built-in strategy to communications. Through the use of all 4 kinds of media – paid, earned, shared, and owned – PR practitioners can create a extra complete and efficient PR technique.
  • Paid media refers to any sort of media that’s paid for, resembling promoting. Earned media refers to media protection that’s not paid for, resembling when a journalist writes about a company in a newspaper or journal. Shared media refers to content material that’s shared on social media or different platforms, resembling when a person shares a weblog submit on their social media account. Owned media refers to content material that’s owned by the group, resembling an organization weblog or web site.
  • General, the PESO mannequin could be a great tool for PR practitioners trying to create a extra built-in and efficient PR technique.”

That is very outdated – like circa 2010 outdated. Gini doesn’t even record Arment Dietrich on her LinkedIn profile anymore. You realize this…then you’re one in every of her unique “crazies.” Maybe repositioning or rebranding methods which might be acknowledged by ChatGPT will likely be a future service within the public relations occupation.

Ought to corporations rent public relations folks internally?

  • “There are professionals and cons to hiring public relations (PR) professionals internally. Listed below are a couple of factors to contemplate:
  • Professionals:
    • Hiring PR professionals internally can provide corporations extra management over their PR efforts. This may be notably essential if the corporate desires to keep up a constant message and model id.
    • Inside PR professionals could have a deeper understanding of the corporate’s tradition, merchandise, and targets, which may make them more practical at selling the corporate.
    • Inside PR professionals could also be extra carefully aligned with the corporate’s targets and goals, which may make them more practical at selling the corporate.
  • Cons:
    • Hiring PR professionals internally could be costlier than outsourcing PR efforts to an outdoor agency.
    • Inside PR professionals could not have the identical stage of experience or sources as an outdoor PR agency.
    • Inside PR professionals could also be too carefully tied to the corporate’s inside politics, which may make it troublesome for them to be goal of their PR efforts.
  • Finally, whether or not or to not rent PR professionals internally is a choice that every firm should make based mostly by itself wants and sources. Some corporations could discover that hiring PR professionals internally is the very best strategy, whereas others could choose to work with an outdoor PR agency.”

Not a nasty breakdown.

When ought to an organization rent a public relations company?

  • “There are a number of conditions when an organization would possibly take into account hiring a public relations (PR) company:
  • When the corporate lacks in-house PR sources: If an organization doesn’t have an in-house PR workforce or doesn’t have the sources to dedicate to PR, it could be useful to rent a PR company. PR companies have the experience and sources to deal with PR campaigns and can assist corporations get probably the most out of their PR efforts.
  • When the corporate wants specialised experience: PR companies typically have specialised experience in sure areas, resembling disaster administration or social media. If an organization wants assist with a selected facet of its PR efforts, it could be useful to rent a PR company that has experience in that space.
  • When the corporate desires to launch a brand new services or products: Launching a brand new services or products could be a main endeavor, and PR can play a key function in serving to to advertise the launch. Hiring a PR company can assist an organization get the phrase out about its new providing and generate buzz.
  • When the corporate is going through a disaster: Within the occasion of a disaster, a PR company can assist an organization handle its repute and talk successfully with the general public. PR companies have the experience and sources to assist corporations navigate crises and reduce the injury to their repute.
  • General, there are lots of conditions when an organization would possibly take into account hiring a PR company, together with when it lacks in-house sources, wants specialised experience, is launching a brand new services or products, or is going through a disaster.”

A current survey of comms professionals finds the prime three causes shoppers rent exterior assist – companies, consultants and freelancers – are an additional pair of palms, exterior objectivity and recommendation and experience in a distinct segment.

What’s in retailer for the way forward for public relations?

  • “The sector of public relations (PR) is continually evolving, and it’s troublesome to foretell precisely what the longer term will maintain. Nevertheless, listed here are a couple of developments which might be more likely to form the way forward for PR:
  • Elevated use of expertise: Know-how is already enjoying a serious function in PR, and it’s doubtless that expertise will proceed to form the sphere sooner or later. This might embody using synthetic intelligence to research information, using digital and augmented actuality in PR campaigns, and using new social media platforms.
  • Larger concentrate on content material advertising and marketing: PR is more and more being seen as a solution to create and distribute partaking and worthwhile content material, slightly than simply selling services or products. PR practitioners will doubtless proceed to concentrate on creating and distributing high-quality content material that resonates with their target market.
  • Larger emphasis on measurement and analytics: PR practitioners are more and more being requested to display the effectiveness of their campaigns. Because of this, it’s doubtless that PR will place a better emphasis on measuring the influence of PR efforts and utilizing information and analytics to tell technique.
  • Continued evolution of social media: Social media has already had a serious influence on PR, and it’s doubtless that social media will proceed to evolve sooner or later. This might embody the rise of recent social media platforms and the growing use of social media for customer support and engagement.
  • General, the way forward for PR is more likely to contain the continued use of expertise, a better concentrate on content material advertising and marketing and measurement, and the continued evolution of social media.”

I’m glad to see the time period content material advertising and marketing come up on this dialogue. Survey analysis exhibits 90% of communicators reporting the kind of work they do has modified no less than some within the final 12 months or so – whereas 50% saying it’s modified considerably. How? Owned media – content material advertising and marketing – is the highest space of emphasis, based on the findings. Respondents stated their group is inserting extra or way more emphasis on owned media (60%), like blogs, newsletters and web sites.

Will ChatGPT change public relations professionals?

  • “It’s unlikely that ChatGPT or every other synthetic intelligence (AI) system will totally change public relations (PR) professionals. Whereas AI can definitely be used to help PR professionals in duties resembling information evaluation and content material creation, it’s unlikely to have the ability to totally change the creativity, strategic considering, and interpersonal expertise which might be important to PR work.
  • PR professionals deliver a singular mixture of expertise and experience to their work, and it’s unlikely that these expertise will likely be totally changed by expertise anytime within the close to future. That being stated, it’s doable that AI may finally be used to automate some duties and make the work of PR professionals extra environment friendly. Nevertheless, it’s unlikely that AI will totally change the human ingredient of PR work.”

That looks like a good reply. Certainly, whereas ChatCPT wrote most of this 5,000 phrase weblog submit, it was nonetheless a heavy raise to provide. It required supervision, consideration to element, analysis and important considering. In fact, I had to consider asking the correct questions which is essential to acquiring the correct solutions.

In case you loved this submit, you may also like: Fast Summaries to five Surveys of PR and Company Communications.

This text initially appeared on the Sword & the Script weblog; reprinted with permission.



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